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About the authors

Head and shoulders portrait of Liz Bruchet with greenery in background

Liz Bruchet is a researcher, archive curator, and oral historian, and Senior Lecturer in Archival Studies in the Department of Information Studies, UCL. Her research focuses on the records and recordkeeping practices of visual arts organisations, with particular interests in the interconnections between archives and curation, as well as the biographies of archives, “orphan” objects and records, and the value of these for curation. Her MA in Curatorial Studies (UBC) drew on her experience in museum and gallery work in Canada, and her PhD in Archival Studies from the University of Brighton developed a conceptual framework for understanding the tangled relationships between archival and curatorial practices. She has led oral history projects for institutions such as the Association for Art History and the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, and prior to her current role, was Researcher and Archive Curator at the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL, for which she has developed a range of collaborative research, digitisation, and exhibition projects. Recent publications include “Archival Finding Aids and Perceptual Frames: Tracing Material Contact Points Through Stephen Chaplin’s Slade Archive Reader”, in The Materiality of the Archive: Creative Practice in Context, ed. Sue Breakell and Wendy Russell (Routledge, forthcoming 2022).

Head and shoulders portrait of Ming Tiampo in black outfit

Ming Tiampo is Professor of Art History, and co-director of the Centre for Transnational Cultural Analysis at Carleton University, Ottawa. She is interested in transcultural models and histories that provide new structures for understanding and reconfiguring the global. She has published on Japanese modernism, global modernisms, and diaspora. Tiampo’s book Gutai: Decentering Modernism (University of Chicago Press, 2011) received an honorable mention for the Robert Motherwell Book award. In 2013, she was co-curator with Alexandra Munroe of the AICA award-winning Gutai: Splendid Playground at the Guggenheim Museum in New York. Her current book projects include Transversal Modernisms: The Slade School of Fine Art, a study which reimagines transcultural intersections through global microhistory; Intersecting Modernisms, a collaborative sourcebook on global modernisms, and Jin-me Yoon, an Art Canada Institute book on the diasporic Korean-Canadian artist. Tiampo is an associate member at ici Berlin, a member of the Hyundai Tate Research Centre: Transnational Advisory Board, a fellow at the Paul Mellon Centre for British Art on the “London, Asia” project, a founding member of TrACE, the Transnational and Transcultural Arts and Culture Exchange network, and co-lead on its “Worlding Public Cultures” project.

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Date
18 July 2021
Review status
Peer Reviewed (Double Blind)
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Liz Bruchet, Ming Tiampo, "Slade, London, Asia: Animating the Archive (Part 1)", British Art Studies, Issue 20, https://doi.org/10.17658/issn.2058-5462/issue-20/animatingsladearchive
Footnotes
The concept of transversals was first used by Tiampo to theorize the relationships between histories that are both parallel and linked through a third term. Ming Tiampo, “Slade, London, Asia: Intersections of Decolonial Modernism”, 10 November 2020, https://www.paul-mellon-centre.ac.uk/whats-on/slade-london-asia.
Edward Said, Culture and Imperialism (New York: Vintage, 1993), 51.
Shu-mei Shih, “Comparison as Relation”, in Comparison: Theories, Approaches, Uses, ed. Rita Felski and Susan Stanford Friedman (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013), 79–98.
Carolyn Hamilton, Verne Harris, and Graeme Reid, Introduction to Refiguring the Archive, ed. Carolyn Hamilton et al. (Dordrecht: Springer, 2002), doi:10.1007/978-94-010-0570-8_1.
Anne J. Gilliland, Sue McKemmish, and Andrew J. Lau, eds., Research in the Archival Multiverse (Clayton, VIC: Monash University Publishing, 2016), http://library.oapen.org/handle/20.500.12657/31429.
Ernst Gombrich, Art and Illusion (New York: Pantheon Books, 1960).
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Slade, London, Asia: Animating the Archive (Part 1)
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DOI

Introduction

From its inception in 1871, the Slade School of Fine Art in London attracted artists from around the world. Slade, London, Asia: Contrapuntal Histories between Imperialism and Decolonization takes the Slade as a starting point for a global microhistory and a reimagined and refigured archive. This feature surfaces how the Slade functioned during the post-war period as a site of encounter, decolonization, and expression for overseas artists; it also presents archival records which illuminate how the Slade occupies a complex place in the global history of art education, art practice, empire, and decolonization.

This feature consists of two interwoven parts. The first is a narrative history in the form of an academic essay that conceptualizes and interrogates the Slade’s role as a transversal line, which at its points of intersection with other lines—such as those tracing histories of colonialism, decolonization and nation building, of concurrent institution building, or of modernist aesthetics—creates contrapuntal nodes, or complex sites of multiple entangled and resonating histories.1 The second part of the feature is this offering of an “animated” archive that brings together materials from multiple institutional and personal archives in Asia and the UK, presented in a manner that invites readers to consider them in a non-linear fashion. Throughout this feature, we build upon Edward Said’s use of the musical metaphor of contrapuntalism to address both the presence of empire in the metropolis and the construction of a transnational counterpoint with multiple voices and melodic lines in order to tune in to histories at the intersection of imperialism and decolonization.2

In this approach, the Slade is configured as a transversal line that links multiple histories from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Indonesia, Singapore, Nigeria, Sudan, Uganda, Britain, and beyond. While we began with the focus on tracing connections between the Slade and artists and sites in Asia, the research evolved iteratively, and came to defy the parameters of the “London, Asia” project. Indeed, the documents showcased here have illuminated important alignments and transversals that extend beyond Asia, taking us to parts of Africa as well as parts of Britain beyond London. In this sense, these archival fragments also help us to position the Slade as one of many transversals and sites of relational comparison through which to analyse multiple colonial and postcolonial histories of art education.3

The constellations of records presented here also shine light on some of the many interconnected and difficult histories, visual languages, and pedagogical frameworks that emerged out of the Slade’s particular transnational context at the intersection of imperial, decolonial, and migration histories. Working through archival material with this framing, and reading them against and along their grain, has allowed us to understand and represent the Slade as an institution that contributed to, but did not fully determine, the formation of the artists who attended it. Many of the artists featured in this research were mid-career when they arrived at the Slade, and were often supported by scholarships or schemes designed to develop capacity for newly independent nations and construct Britain as a post-imperial power. The artists brought with them their own vocabularies, ideas, ambitions, and conundrums, contributing to the contrapuntal environment at the Slade. The records featured here convey artists as institutional subjects in which the Slade functions as an authoritative intermediary, as well as (auto)biographical figures, postcolonial interlocutors, actors, and visionaries.

The project has evolved from two long-term collaborative research projects: “Transnational Slade” and “London, Asia”. The collaboration activates an alchemy of archival studies and art history, opening up the field of research to new intersections, and enabling us to refigure the archives we draw on and co-constitute.4 Setting an aim to “animate the archive” foregrounds (an) archive(s) as the subject of activation and illumination. It suggests we are bringing to life what has passed. Yet archives, considered through archival studies, are not inert, nor solely concerned with the past; they carry agency and hold different affordances in the present. In this sense, through this research, we seek not to animate but rather to refigure the archive and assume that archives, in their plurality, are important subjects of study in their own right.5

Although our research has resulted in this initial publication with its own particular framing and moment of archival activation and authorship in a form akin to an exhibition, the collaborative ethos of the project has encouraged the sharing of archival knowledge in order to seed new research beyond the scope of this project. The journey has led us to an array of personal, family, institutional, and organizational archives (both formal and informal), as well as oral histories and research workshops. The open access, digital format of British Art Studies lends itself to embedding different types of records in a variety of formats, which provides opportunities to make visible the qualities and patterns of these records as they are distilled from different recordkeeping contexts and activities.

This is Part 1 of a two-part feature, which addresses the period from about 1945 to 1965; Part 2 will encompass the period from the 1960s to the 1990s, and incorporate material gleaned from upcoming workshops. The contrapuntal histories of art education presented here offer a global microhistory situated within the complex entanglements between imperialism and decolonization. They have also prompted reconsideration of ways to engage with, co-constitute, and curate a research archive in pursuit of this endeavour. We take the Slade as a starting point for exploration, but render it as a single melodic line in a polyphonic counterpoint. As such, these transversally linked and co-constituted histories provide new methodologies for writing the histories of contrapuntal modernisms, while also understanding art in Britain itself as the product of empire.

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I. Institutional Pathways and Documentary Trails

This section showcases a selection of records from the Slade archive: panoramic class photos providing compelling but incomplete representations of a given year group; student files containing a variety of records reflecting operations bureaucratic and beyond, such as correspondence between officials, funders, tutors’ reports, reference letters, press clippings, and exhibition catalogues; and an autographed cricket bat, an idiosyncratic artefact self-consciously transformed into an art-historical document, which speaks to a complex moment of artistic sociality. Embracing archival studies, which posits archives as subjects of study in their own right, we invite consideration of the form, content, and context of such institutional records. When read along and against its grain, this art-school archive helps to illuminate the particular transcultural positions and conditions the artists and institutions featured were working in and through. Records in this section relate to artists such as Khalid Iqbal, Hussein Shariffe, Gazbia Sirry, Wendy Yeo, and Tseng Yu, and institutions as diverse as the State Corporation for Cinema in Khartoum, the National Film and Television School in Beaconsfield, the UK Home Office, the British Council, and the National College of Arts, Lahore. Through this arrangement, we foreground the intertextual nature of evidence and the complexities of the source material that underpin our propositions in the accompanying long-form essay.

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    Figure 1.


    Slade class photo, spring 1955, including Ibrahim El-Salahi, Abdulla Mohi-El-Din El Guneid, Menhat Helmy, Khalid Iqbal, Sam Ntiro, Tseng Yu, and Jamila Zafar. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL.


    Digital image courtesy of Slade School of Fine Art, UCL (all rights reserved).

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    Figure 2.


    Slade class photo, spring 1957, including Kulwant Aurora, D.J. Banerjee, Abdulla Mohi-El-Din El Guneid, Ibrahim El-Salahi, Anwar Jalal Shemza, Phan van My, Wendy Yeo, and Jamila Zafar. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL.


    Digital image courtesy of Slade School of Fine Art, UCL (all rights reserved)

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    Figure 3.


    Partial digital reconstruction, Slade class photo, spring 1960, including Amir Nour, Archana Lahiri, Shama Zaidi, Kim Lim (Chengkim Lim), Damyanti Chowla, Gnanasundari Sawminathan, A. Rahim, Anwar Jalal Shemza, and Maisie Tschang. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL.


    Digital image courtesy of Slade School of Fine Art, UCL (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 1

Slade class photo, spring 1955, including Ibrahim El-Salahi, Abdulla Mohi-El-Din El Guneid, Menhat Helmy, Khalid Iqbal, Sam Ntiro, Tseng Yu, and Jamila Zafar. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL.
Digital image courtesy of Slade School of Fine Art, UCL (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 2

Slade class photo, spring 1957, including Kulwant Aurora, D.J. Banerjee, Abdulla Mohi-El-Din El Guneid, Ibrahim El-Salahi, Anwar Jalal Shemza, Phan van My, Wendy Yeo, and Jamila Zafar. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL.
Digital image courtesy of Slade School of Fine Art, UCL (all rights reserved)

DOI Figure 3

Partial digital reconstruction, Slade class photo, spring 1960, including Amir Nour, Archana Lahiri, Shama Zaidi, Kim Lim (Chengkim Lim), Damyanti Chowla, Gnanasundari Sawminathan, A. Rahim, Anwar Jalal Shemza, and Maisie Tschang. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL.
Digital image courtesy of Slade School of Fine Art, UCL (all rights reserved).

  • Slade student record
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    Figure 4.


    Slade student record, relating to Ibrahim El-Salahi. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Slade student record
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    Figure 5.


    Slade student record, relating to Anwar Jalal Shemza. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Slade student record
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    Figure 6.


    Slade student record, relating to Kim Lim. Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

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Slade student record, relating to Ibrahim El-Salahi. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

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Slade student record, relating to Anwar Jalal Shemza. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

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Slade student record, relating to Kim Lim. Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Hussein Shariffe’s tutor’s report
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    Figure 7.


    Hussein Shariffe’s tutor’s report, 5 March 1958. Hussein Shariffe’s student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Brochure from Hussein Shariffe’s solo exhibition at Gallery One
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    Figure 8.


    Brochure from Hussein Shariffe’s solo exhibition at Gallery One, opening 25 April 1963. Hussein Shariffe’s student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from Hussein Shariffe to Ian Tregarthen Jenkin on his options for undertaking studies in film
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    Figure 9.


    Letter from Hussein Shariffe to Ian Tregarthen Jenkin on his options for undertaking studies in film, 22 September 1971. Hussein Shariffe’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

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Hussein Shariffe’s tutor’s report, 5 March 1958. Hussein Shariffe’s student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 8

Brochure from Hussein Shariffe’s solo exhibition at Gallery One, opening 25 April 1963. Hussein Shariffe’s student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 9

Letter from Hussein Shariffe to Ian Tregarthen Jenkin on his options for undertaking studies in film, 22 September 1971. Hussein Shariffe’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Report by William Townsend on the British Council Scholar, Gazbia Sirry
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    Figure 10.


    Report by William Townsend on the British Council Scholar, Gazbia Sirry, 9 March 1955, page 1 of 2. Gazbia Sirry’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Report by William Townsend on the British Council Scholar, Gazbia Sirry
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    Figure 11.


    Report by William Townsend on the British Council Scholar, Gazbia Sirry, 9 March 1955, page 2 of 2. Gazbia Sirry’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from Ian Tregarthen Jenkin to the Aliens Department of the UK Home Office requesting visa authorisation for Tseng Yu
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    Figure 12.


    Letter from Ian Tregarthen Jenkin to the Aliens Department of the UK Home Office requesting visa authorisation for Tseng Yu, 12 August 1952, page 1 of 2. Tseng Yu’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from Ian Tregarthen Jenkin to the Aliens Department of the UK Home Office requesting visa authorisation for Tseng Yu
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    Figure 13.


    Letter from Ian Tregarthen Jenkin to the Aliens Department of the UK Home Office requesting visa authorisation for Tseng Yu, 12 August 1952, page 2 of 2. Tseng Yu’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 10

Report by William Townsend on the British Council Scholar, Gazbia Sirry, 9 March 1955, page 1 of 2. Gazbia Sirry’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 11

Report by William Townsend on the British Council Scholar, Gazbia Sirry, 9 March 1955, page 2 of 2. Gazbia Sirry’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 12

Letter from Ian Tregarthen Jenkin to the Aliens Department of the UK Home Office requesting visa authorisation for Tseng Yu, 12 August 1952, page 1 of 2. Tseng Yu’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 13

Letter from Ian Tregarthen Jenkin to the Aliens Department of the UK Home Office requesting visa authorisation for Tseng Yu, 12 August 1952, page 2 of 2. Tseng Yu’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Autographed cricket bat, signed by players of a friendly game between staff and students of the Slade and Camberwell College of Art
    DOI

    Figure 14.


    Autographed cricket bat, signed by players of a friendly game between staff and students of the Slade and Camberwell College of Art, summer 1954. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL Archives.


    Digital image courtesy of Liz Bruchet (all rights reserved).

  • Autographed cricket bat, signed by players of a friendly game between staff and students of the Slade and Camberwell College of Art
    DOI

    Figure 15.


    Autographed cricket bat, signed by players of a friendly game between staff and students of the Slade and Camberwell College of Art, summer 1954. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL Archives.


    Digital image courtesy of Liz Bruchet (all rights reserved).

  • Autographed cricket bat, signed by players of a friendly game between staff and students of the Slade and Camberwell College of Art
    DOI

    Figure 16.


    Autographed cricket bat, signed by players of a friendly game between staff and students of the Slade and Camberwell College of Art, summer 1954. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL Archives.


    Digital image courtesy of Liz Bruchet (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 14

Autographed cricket bat, signed by players of a friendly game between staff and students of the Slade and Camberwell College of Art, summer 1954. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL Archives.
Digital image courtesy of Liz Bruchet (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 15

Autographed cricket bat, signed by players of a friendly game between staff and students of the Slade and Camberwell College of Art, summer 1954. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL Archives.
Digital image courtesy of Liz Bruchet (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 16

Autographed cricket bat, signed by players of a friendly game between staff and students of the Slade and Camberwell College of Art, summer 1954. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL Archives.
Digital image courtesy of Liz Bruchet (all rights reserved).

  • Photograph of Khalid Iqbal
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    Figure 17.


    Photograph of Khalid Iqbal, c. 1952. Khalid Iqbal’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Cover of Khalid Iqbal’s personnel file at the National College of Arts, Lahore
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    Figure 18.


    Cover of Khalid Iqbal’s personnel file at the National College of Arts, Lahore, 1962–1982. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.


    Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

  • Letter of recommendation for Khalid Iqbal from John Aldridge
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    Figure 19.


    Letter of recommendation for Khalid Iqbal from John Aldridge, 4 September 1962. Khalid Iqbal’s personnel file, page 3. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.


    Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

  • Khalid Iqbal’s Curriculum Vitae
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    Figure 20.


    Khalid Iqbal’s Curriculum Vitae, from Khalid Iqbal’s personnel file, page 57. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.


    Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 17

Photograph of Khalid Iqbal, c. 1952. Khalid Iqbal’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 18

Cover of Khalid Iqbal’s personnel file at the National College of Arts, Lahore, 1962–1982. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.
Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 19

Letter of recommendation for Khalid Iqbal from John Aldridge, 4 September 1962. Khalid Iqbal’s personnel file, page 3. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.
Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 20

Khalid Iqbal’s Curriculum Vitae, from Khalid Iqbal’s personnel file, page 57. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.
Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 21

Letter from Anna Molka Ahmed to Ian Tregarthen Jenkin, about Khalid Iqbal, 19 May 1952, page 1 of 2. Khalid Iqbal’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital facsimile courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 22

Extract from an oral history interview conducted with Stephen Chaplin, in which he recalls befriending Khalid Iqbal on their first day in the Slade Antiques Room in 1952, 10 July 2013, interviewed by Liz Bruchet. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL Archives.
Digital courtesy of Slade School of Fine Art, UCL (all rights reserved).

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II. Imagining Postcolonial States

The documents featured in this section begin to elucidate the complex contrapuntal positionalities and objectives of artists who were simultaneously occupied in roles as bureaucrats, arts administrators, and key members of government, many of whom were funded by national governments to study at the Slade. Approaching the Slade as a contrapuntal site in a global context in which art education played an important role in postcolonial nation building and in the ongoing assertion of British influence, the records speak to case studies that can illuminate multivalent postcolonial modernisms. The records configured here touch on the stories of Zainul Abedin and the Government Institute of Fine Arts, Dhaka; Jamila Zaidi and the National College of Arts, Lahore; K.G. Subramanyan and art education in India; as well as relationships between the Slade and the Nigerian College of Arts, Science and Technology, and Makerere College, Kampala. Our movement through Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, Nigeria, and Uganda illustrates how diverse responses to colonial education can be set productively in dialogue with each other along transversals, as they are negotiated across multiple sites and through varying cultural and artistic imaginaries.

DOI Figure 23

Article on Zainul Abedin and his visit to the Slade in 1951, Commonwealth Today, 10. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL Archives.
Digital facsimile courtesy of Slade School of Fine Art, UCL / the estate of Zainul Abedin (all rights reserved).

  • Letter of recommendation for Affandi from President Sukarno to Vice-President Nehru
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    Figure 24.


    Letter of recommendation for Affandi from President Sukarno to Vice-President Nehru, 19 March 1947. Collection of the National Archives of the Netherlands.


    Digital image courtesy of National Archives of the Netherlands (all rights reserved).

  • Diplomatist
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    Figure 25.


    Article on Zainul Abedin and Affandi, Diplomatist, c. 1952–1953 (London: Diplomatist Associates Ltd). Collection of the Indonesian Visual Art Archive.


    Digital image courtesy of Indonesian Visual Art Archive (all rights reserved).

  • Zainul Abedin’s notes on cultural policy
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    Figure 26.


    Zainul Abedin’s notes on cultural policy, c. 1969. Collection of the estate of Zainul Abedin.


    Digital image courtesy of Zainul Abedin (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 24

Letter of recommendation for Affandi from President Sukarno to Vice-President Nehru, 19 March 1947. Collection of the National Archives of the Netherlands.
Digital image courtesy of National Archives of the Netherlands (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 25

Article on Zainul Abedin and Affandi, Diplomatist, c. 1952–1953 (London: Diplomatist Associates Ltd). Collection of the Indonesian Visual Art Archive.
Digital image courtesy of Indonesian Visual Art Archive (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 26

Zainul Abedin’s notes on cultural policy, c. 1969. Collection of the estate of Zainul Abedin.
Digital image courtesy of Zainul Abedin (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from Taj Muhammad Khayal to Jamila Zafar, requesting that she prepare a textbook for art and laying out terms
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    Figure 27.


    Letter from Taj Muhammad Khayal to Jamila Zafar, requesting that she prepare a textbook for art and laying out terms, 1961, page 1 of 2. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.


    Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from Taj Muhammad Khayal to Jamila Zafar, requesting that she prepare a textbook for art and laying out terms
    DOI

    Figure 28.


    Letter from Taj Muhammad Khayal to Jamila Zafar, requesting that she prepare a textbook for art and laying out terms, 1961, page 2 of 2. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.


    Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from Jamila Zafar to Mark Ritter Sponenburgh, seeking permission to prepare the textbook “in the national interest”
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    Figure 29.


    Letter from Jamila Zafar to Mark Ritter Sponenburgh, seeking permission to prepare the textbook “in the national interest”, 1961, page 1 of 2. Jamila Zafar’s personnel file. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.


    Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from Jamila Zafar to Mark Ritter Sponenburgh, seeking permission to prepare the textbook “in the national interest”
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    Figure 30.


    Letter from Jamila Zafar to Mark Ritter Sponenburgh, seeking permission to prepare the textbook “in the national interest”, 1961, page 2 of 2. Jamila Zafar’s personnel file. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.


    Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from Mark Ritter Sponenburgh to Syed Abdul Hassan, requesting permission for Jamila Zafar to travel to India on a study tour
    DOI

    Figure 31.


    Letter from Mark Ritter Sponenburgh to Syed Abdul Hassan, requesting permission for Jamila Zafar to travel to India on a study tour, 16 March 1961. Jamila Zafar’s personnel file. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.


    Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 27

Letter from Taj Muhammad Khayal to Jamila Zafar, requesting that she prepare a textbook for art and laying out terms, 1961, page 1 of 2. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.
Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 28

Letter from Taj Muhammad Khayal to Jamila Zafar, requesting that she prepare a textbook for art and laying out terms, 1961, page 2 of 2. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.
Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 29

Letter from Jamila Zafar to Mark Ritter Sponenburgh, seeking permission to prepare the textbook “in the national interest”, 1961, page 1 of 2. Jamila Zafar’s personnel file. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.
Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 30

Letter from Jamila Zafar to Mark Ritter Sponenburgh, seeking permission to prepare the textbook “in the national interest”, 1961, page 2 of 2. Jamila Zafar’s personnel file. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.
Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 31

Letter from Mark Ritter Sponenburgh to Syed Abdul Hassan, requesting permission for Jamila Zafar to travel to India on a study tour, 16 March 1961. Jamila Zafar’s personnel file. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.
Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 32

K.G. Subramanyan, An Unfinished Agenda (Some thoughts on Art Education), 9 December 1997. Collection of Asia Art Archive.
Digital facsimile courtesy of Asia Art Archive (all rights reserved).

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Report of the Commission on Higher Education in the Colonies, (London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1945). Collection of The National Archives, Kew.
Digital facsimile courtesy of The National Archives, Kew (Open Government Licence v3.0).

DOI Figure 34

Inter-University Council for Higher Education in the Colonies: Report, (London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1946–1947). Collection of The National Archives, Kew.
Digital facsimile courtesy of The National Archives, Kew (Open Government Licence v3.0).

DOI Figure 35

Inter-University Council for Higher Education in the Colonies: Second Report, (London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1947–1949). Collection of The National Archives, Kew.
Digital facsimile courtesy of The National Archives, Kew (Open Government Licence v3.0).

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    Figure 36.


    Letter from Ben Enwonwu to William Coldstream, 24 September 1958. Nigerian College of Arts, Science and Technology file, William Coldstream papers UCLCA/4/1/2/4/17. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

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    Figure 37.


    Life Class in Session at the Makerere Art School with Margaret Trowell, 1947. Collection of Makerere University.


    Digital image courtesy of Makerere University (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 36

Letter from Ben Enwonwu to William Coldstream, 24 September 1958. Nigerian College of Arts, Science and Technology file, William Coldstream papers UCLCA/4/1/2/4/17. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 37

Life Class in Session at the Makerere Art School with Margaret Trowell, 1947. Collection of Makerere University.
Digital image courtesy of Makerere University (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 38

Letter from Margaret Trowell to William Coldstream, on the development of the course at Makerere School of Art, with her planning notes for the fine art diploma, 16 April 1951, Makerere Art School college file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital facsimile courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 39

Letter from Margaret Trowell to William Coldstream, regarding degrees and standards, 29 June 1955, Makerere Art School college file. Letter in reply from Coldstream to Trowell, 13 July 1955, Makerere Art School college file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital facsimile courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from Sam Ntiro to William Coldstream, regarding funding for a trip to Italy
    DOI

    Figure 40.


    Letter from Sam Ntiro to William Coldstream, regarding funding for a trip to Italy, 25 May 1955. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from William Coldstream to Colonel Crook at the Colonial Office on behalf of Sam Ntiro
    DOI

    Figure 41.


    Letter from William Coldstream to Colonel Crook at the Colonial Office on behalf of Sam Ntiro, 27 May 1955. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from Colonel Crook at the Colonial Office to William Coldstream, regarding Sam Ntiro’s request for funding
    DOI

    Figure 42.


    Letter from Colonel Crook at the Colonial Office to William Coldstream, regarding Sam Ntiro’s request for funding, 31 May 1955. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from I.C.M Maxwell of the Inter-University Council for Higher Education Overseas to William Coldstream, requesting a reference for Sam Ntiro
    DOI

    Figure 43.


    Letter from I.C.M Maxwell of the Inter-University Council for Higher Education Overseas to William Coldstream, requesting a reference for Sam Ntiro, 30 January 1956. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from William Coldstream to I.C.M Maxwell of the Inter-University Council for Higher Education Overseas, providing a reference for Sam Ntiro
    DOI

    Figure 44.


    Letter from William Coldstream to I.C.M Maxwell of the Inter-University Council for Higher Education Overseas, providing a reference for Sam Ntiro, 2 February 1956. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 40

Letter from Sam Ntiro to William Coldstream, regarding funding for a trip to Italy, 25 May 1955. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 41

Letter from William Coldstream to Colonel Crook at the Colonial Office on behalf of Sam Ntiro, 27 May 1955. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 42

Letter from Colonel Crook at the Colonial Office to William Coldstream, regarding Sam Ntiro’s request for funding, 31 May 1955. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 43

Letter from I.C.M Maxwell of the Inter-University Council for Higher Education Overseas to William Coldstream, requesting a reference for Sam Ntiro, 30 January 1956. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 44

Letter from William Coldstream to I.C.M Maxwell of the Inter-University Council for Higher Education Overseas, providing a reference for Sam Ntiro, 2 February 1956. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from Sam Ntiro to William Coldstream
    DOI

    Figure 45.


    Letter from Sam Ntiro to William Coldstream, 11 December 1956, page 1 of 2. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from Sam Ntiro to William Coldstream
    DOI

    Figure 46.


    Letter from Sam Ntiro to William Coldstream, 11 December 1956, page 2 of 2. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from William Coldstream to Sam Ntiro
    DOI

    Figure 47.


    Letter from William Coldstream to Sam Ntiro, 14 December 1956. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from Sam Ntiro to William Coldstream, sharing news of his engagement to Sarah Nyendwoha (Ntiro)
    DOI

    Figure 48.


    Letter from Sam Ntiro to William Coldstream, sharing news of his engagement to Sarah Nyendwoha (Ntiro), 22 August 1958. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from Sam Ntiro to Ian Tregarthen Jenkin
    DOI

    Figure 49.


    Letter from Sam Ntiro to Ian Tregarthen Jenkin, 16 October 1958, page 1 of 2. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from Sam Ntiro to Ian Tregarthen Jenkin
    DOI

    Figure 50.


    Letter from Sam Ntiro to Ian Tregarthen Jenkin, 16 October 1958, page 2 of 2. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 45

Letter from Sam Ntiro to William Coldstream, 11 December 1956, page 1 of 2. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 46

Letter from Sam Ntiro to William Coldstream, 11 December 1956, page 2 of 2. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 47

Letter from William Coldstream to Sam Ntiro, 14 December 1956. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 48

Letter from Sam Ntiro to William Coldstream, sharing news of his engagement to Sarah Nyendwoha (Ntiro), 22 August 1958. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 49

Letter from Sam Ntiro to Ian Tregarthen Jenkin, 16 October 1958, page 1 of 2. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 50

Letter from Sam Ntiro to Ian Tregarthen Jenkin, 16 October 1958, page 2 of 2. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Article on Sam Ntiro’s appointment to High Commissioner in London
    DOI

    Figure 51.


    Article on Sam Ntiro’s appointment to High Commissioner in London, 20 August 1958, unknown publication. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • The Standard
    DOI

    Figure 52.


    Article on Dar es Salaam workshop, The Standard, date unknown. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from the Slade School of Fine Art to Sam Ntiro, congratulating him on his appointment as High Commissioner in London
    DOI

    Figure 53.


    Letter from the Slade School of Fine Art to Sam Ntiro, congratulating him on his appointment as High Commissioner in London, 4 April 1963. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from Sam Ntiro to William Coldstream (“Bill”)
    DOI

    Figure 54.


    Letter from Sam Ntiro to William Coldstream (“Bill”), 8 April 1965, page 1 of 2. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from Sam Ntiro to William Coldstream (“Bill”)
    DOI

    Figure 55.


    Letter from Sam Ntiro to William Coldstream (“Bill”), 8 April 1965, page 2 of 2. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • Letter from William Coldstream to Sam Ntiro
    DOI

    Figure 56.


    Letter from William Coldstream to Sam Ntiro, 10 May 1965. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 51

Article on Sam Ntiro’s appointment to High Commissioner in London, 20 August 1958, unknown publication. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 52

Article on Dar es Salaam workshop, The Standard, date unknown. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 53

Letter from the Slade School of Fine Art to Sam Ntiro, congratulating him on his appointment as High Commissioner in London, 4 April 1963. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 54

Letter from Sam Ntiro to William Coldstream (“Bill”), 8 April 1965, page 1 of 2. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 55

Letter from Sam Ntiro to William Coldstream (“Bill”), 8 April 1965, page 2 of 2. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 56

Letter from William Coldstream to Sam Ntiro, 10 May 1965. Sam Ntiro’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI

III. Contrapuntal World-Making

This section focuses on the work of art in the context of the contrapuntal worlds made and remade by overseas artists at the Slade, reflecting their negotiation of novel configurations of artistic methods, vocabularies, and schemas. The five artists featured—Zainul Abedin (1951–1952), Tseng Yu (1952–1956), Wendy Yeo (1953; 1955–1959), Anwar Jalal Shemza (1956–1960), and Kim Lim (1957–1960; 1969–1970)—each came to the Slade via different circuits of mobility and access, and each responded in turn to the opportunities and challenges of the Slade as a contact zone, producing distinct contrapuntal aesthetics. When examined together with the Slade as a transversal line, the relationships between these works become more evident, bringing out their harmonic interdependencies despite their independent melodic lines.

DOI Figure 57

Pages from Zainul Abedin’s London sketchbook, 1951. Collection of The Estate of Zainul Abedin.
Digital facsimile courtesy of The Estate of Zainul Abedin (all rights reserved).

  • DOI

    Figure 58.


    Zainul Abedin’s analysis of “cubist construction”, 1951. Collection of The Estate of Zainul Abedin.


    Digital image courtesy of The Estate of Zainul Abedin (all rights reserved).

  • DOI

    Figure 59.


    Zainul Abedin, Woman with a Pitcher, 1951, watercolour on paper, 54 x 41 cm. Collection of the Bangladesh National Museum.


    Digital image courtesy of The Estate of Zainul Abedin (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 58

Zainul Abedin’s analysis of “cubist construction”, 1951. Collection of The Estate of Zainul Abedin.
Digital image courtesy of The Estate of Zainul Abedin (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 59

Zainul Abedin, Woman with a Pitcher, 1951, watercolour on paper, 54 x 41 cm. Collection of the Bangladesh National Museum.
Digital image courtesy of The Estate of Zainul Abedin (all rights reserved).

  • DOI

    Figure 60.


    Tseng Yu, Interior with a Man Painting, 1955, oil on canvas, 101.7 x 76.2 cm. Collection of the UCL Art Museum (LDUCS-5311).


    Digital image courtesy of Tseng Yu / UCL Art Museum (all rights reserved).

  • DOI

    Figure 61.


    Letter from Tseng Yu to David Hawkes (in Chinese), between 1959–1984. Collection of The Chinese University of Hong Kong Library.


    Digital image courtesy of The Chinese University of Hong Kong Library (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 60

Tseng Yu, Interior with a Man Painting, 1955, oil on canvas, 101.7 x 76.2 cm. Collection of the UCL Art Museum (LDUCS-5311).
Digital image courtesy of Tseng Yu / UCL Art Museum (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 61

Letter from Tseng Yu to David Hawkes (in Chinese), between 1959–1984. Collection of The Chinese University of Hong Kong Library.
Digital image courtesy of The Chinese University of Hong Kong Library (all rights reserved).

  • DOI

    Figure 62.


    Wendy Yeo, Townscape with Figures, 1958, oil on canvas, 182.9 x 121.9 cm. Collection of the UCL Art Museum (LDUCS-5057).


    Digital image courtesy of Wendy Yeo / UCL Art Museum (all rights reserved).

  • DOI

    Figure 63.


    Wendy Yeo, Mountain Streams, 1958–1959, oil on canvas, 106.6 x 61 cm. UCL Art Museum (LDUCS-5275).


    Digital image courtesy of Wendy Yeo / UCL Art Museum (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 62

Wendy Yeo, Townscape with Figures, 1958, oil on canvas, 182.9 x 121.9 cm. Collection of the UCL Art Museum (LDUCS-5057).
Digital image courtesy of Wendy Yeo / UCL Art Museum (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 63

Wendy Yeo, Mountain Streams, 1958–1959, oil on canvas, 106.6 x 61 cm. UCL Art Museum (LDUCS-5275).
Digital image courtesy of Wendy Yeo / UCL Art Museum (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 64

Excerpts from an oral history interview with Wendy Yeo, conducted by Liz Bruchet and Ming Tiampo, 27 November 2020 and 11 December 2020, film, 22 minutes, 29 seconds. Film editing by Edward Spreull. Digital files courtesy of Wendy Yeo (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 65

A.J. Shemza: Paintings Drawings 1957–1963, exhibition catalogue (Durham: Gulbenkian Museum of Oriental Art, Durham University, 1963). Collection of the Oriental Museum, Durham University.
Digital facsimile courtesy of the estate of Anwar Jalal Shemza (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 66

Anwar Jalal Shemza, The Wall, c. 1958, oil on board, 60 x 44.5 cm. Collection of the Birmingham Museums Trust (1998P81).
Digital image courtesy of the estate of Anwar Jalal Shemza / Photo 12 / Ann Ronan Picture Library / Alamy Stock Photo (all rights reserved).

DOI

IV. Contrapuntal Pedagogies

The records gathered here, including curricula, artists’ notes, and administrative and artistic correspondence, enable us to consider how a number of overseas artists who passed through the Slade reworked, supplemented, and often disrupted the school’s pedagogical models in contrapuntal fashions. Transversal comparisons of three groups of pedagogical artefacts from three different sites—Dhaka, Lahore, and the Sinophone world—provide a means of analysing critical appropriations of the Slade’s curriculum in order to draw relational comparisons between different colonial and postcolonial histories of art education.

DOI Figure 67

Kim Lim, Typed Manuscript, 2 pages. Collection the estate of Kim Lim, London.
Digital facsimile courtesy of the estate of Kim Lim, London (all rights reserved).

  • Untitled
    DOI

    Figure 68.


    Label from the Slade student prize album, showing that Kim Lim’s work, Untitled, won the second prize for sculpture composition, 1958. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL Archives.


    Digital image courtesy of Liz Bruchet (all rights reserved).

  • Untitled
    DOI

    Figure 69.


    Kim Lim, Untitled, 1958, winner of the second prize for sculpture composition. Slade student prize album. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL Archives.


    Digital image courtesy of Liz Bruchet and the estate of Kim Lim, London (all rights reserved).

  • Ronin
    DOI

    Figure 70.


    Kim Lim, Ronin, 1963, sculpture. Collection the estate of Kim Lim, London.


    Digital image courtesy of the estate of Kim Lim, London / Photo: Sotheby’s (all rights reserved).

  • Stack
    DOI

    Figure 71.


    Kim Lim, Stack, 1976, sculpture. Collection the estate of Kim Lim, London.


    Digital image courtesy of the estate of Kim Lim, London / Photo: Sotheby’s (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 68

Label from the Slade student prize album, showing that Kim Lim’s work, Untitled, won the second prize for sculpture composition, 1958. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL Archives.
Digital image courtesy of Liz Bruchet (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 69

Kim Lim, Untitled, 1958, winner of the second prize for sculpture composition. Slade student prize album. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL Archives.
Digital image courtesy of Liz Bruchet and the estate of Kim Lim, London (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 70

Kim Lim, Ronin, 1963, sculpture. Collection the estate of Kim Lim, London.
Digital image courtesy of the estate of Kim Lim, London / Photo: Sotheby’s (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 71

Kim Lim, Stack, 1976, sculpture. Collection the estate of Kim Lim, London.
Digital image courtesy of the estate of Kim Lim, London / Photo: Sotheby’s (all rights reserved).

  • Study Photograph from Fatehpur Sikri, India
    DOI

    Figure 72.


    Kim Lim, Study Photograph from Fatehpur Sikri, India, undated. Collection the estate of Kim Lim, London.


    Digital image courtesy of the estate of Kim Lim, London (all rights reserved).

  • Study Photograph from Karnak Temple Complex, Egypt
    DOI

    Figure 73.


    Kim Lim, Study Photograph from Karnak Temple Complex, Egypt, undated. Collection the estate of Kim Lim, London.


    Digital image courtesy of the estate of Kim Lim, London (all rights reserved).

  • Study Photograph from Kiyomizu-dera, Japan
    DOI

    Figure 74.


    Kim Lim, Study Photograph from Kiyomizu-dera, Japan, 1962. Collection the estate of Kim Lim, London.


    Digital image courtesy of the estate of Kim Lim, London (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 72

Kim Lim, Study Photograph from Fatehpur Sikri, India, undated. Collection the estate of Kim Lim, London.
Digital image courtesy of the estate of Kim Lim, London (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 73

Kim Lim, Study Photograph from Karnak Temple Complex, Egypt, undated. Collection the estate of Kim Lim, London.
Digital image courtesy of the estate of Kim Lim, London (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 74

Kim Lim, Study Photograph from Kiyomizu-dera, Japan, 1962. Collection the estate of Kim Lim, London.
Digital image courtesy of the estate of Kim Lim, London (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 75

University of London, University College Calendar: Session MCML–MCMLI, (London: Taylor & Francis, 1950): “The Slade School Session 1950–51”, 119–133. Collection of UCL Special Collections.
Digital facsimile courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved

DOI Figure 76

Zainul Abedin’s notes on printmaking, 1951. Collection of the estate of Zainul Abedin.
Digital facsimile courtesy of the estate of Zainul Abedin (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 77

Zainul Abedin’s notes for the curriculum at The Government Institute of Arts, Dacca, c. 1956. Collection of the estate of Zainul Abedin.
Digital facsimile courtesy of the estate of Zainul Abedin (all rights reserved).

  • DOI

    Figure 78.


    Jamila Zaidi’s Curriculum Vitae, c. 1964. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.


    Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

  • DOI

    Figure 79.


    Jamila Zaidi, Abstract for “Criticism in Art Education at the College Level”, a paper delivered by Zaidi at the 16th Annual All Pakistan Science Conference, 1963. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.


    Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 78

Jamila Zaidi’s Curriculum Vitae, c. 1964. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.
Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 79

Jamila Zaidi, Abstract for “Criticism in Art Education at the College Level”, a paper delivered by Zaidi at the 16th Annual All Pakistan Science Conference, 1963. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.
Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

  • Curriculum of lectures for the fundamental course on visual arts
    DOI

    Figure 80.


    National College of Arts, Lahore, Curriculum of lectures for the fundamental course on visual arts, 1960–1961. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.


    Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

  • History of Art and Architecture fall term syllabus
    DOI

    Figure 81.


    National College of Arts, Lahore, History of Art and Architecture fall term syllabus, undated, page 1 of 2. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.


    Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

  • History of Art and Architecture fall term syllabus
    DOI

    Figure 82.


    National College of Arts, Lahore, History of Art and Architecture fall term syllabus, undated, page 2 of 2. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.


    Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

  • History of Art II, fall term syllabus
    DOI

    Figure 83.


    National College of Arts, Lahore, History of Art II, fall term syllabus, undated, page 1 of 2. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.


    Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

  • History of Art II, fall term syllabus
    DOI

    Figure 84.


    National College of Arts, Lahore, History of Art II, fall term syllabus, undated, page 2 of 2. Collection National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.


    Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

  • Handwritten syllabus for third-year class on technical methods
    DOI

    Figure 85.


    National College of Arts, Lahore, Handwritten syllabus for third-year class on technical methods, undated. Collection National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.


    Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 80

National College of Arts, Lahore, Curriculum of lectures for the fundamental course on visual arts, 1960–1961. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.
Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 81

National College of Arts, Lahore, History of Art and Architecture fall term syllabus, undated, page 1 of 2. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.
Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 82

National College of Arts, Lahore, History of Art and Architecture fall term syllabus, undated, page 2 of 2. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.
Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 83

National College of Arts, Lahore, History of Art II, fall term syllabus, undated, page 1 of 2. Collection of the National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.
Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 84

National College of Arts, Lahore, History of Art II, fall term syllabus, undated, page 2 of 2. Collection National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.
Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 85

National College of Arts, Lahore, Handwritten syllabus for third-year class on technical methods, undated. Collection National College of Arts, Lahore Archive.
Digital image courtesy of National College of Arts, Lahore Archive (all rights reserved).

  • The Chinese University of Hong Kong Bulletin
    DOI

    Figure 86.


    The Chinese University of Hong Kong Bulletin, 8, no. 5 (December 1971), 4. Collection of The Chinese University of Hong Kong.


    Digital image courtesy of The Chinese University of Hong Kong (all rights reserved).

  • The Chinese University of Hong Kong Bulletin
    DOI

    Figure 87.


    The Chinese University of Hong Kong Bulletin, 8, no. 5 (December 1971), 5. Collection of The Chinese University of Hong Kong.


    Digital image courtesy of The Chinese University of Hong Kong (all rights reserved).

  • The Arts of China
    DOI

    Figure 88.


    Cover of the Chinese translation of Michael Sullivan, The Arts of China, (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1977), translated by Tseng Yu and Wang Bo Lian, Zhong Guo Yi Shu Shi [History of Chinese Art] (Taipei: Nan Tian Publishing, 1985).


    Digital image courtesy of Nan Tian Publishing (all rights reserved)

  • History of Art
    DOI

    Figure 89.


    Chinese Translation of H.W. Janson, History of Art, (London: Thames and Hudson, 1977), translated by Tseng Yu and Wang Bo Lian, Xi Yang Yi Shu Shi [History of Art] (Taipei: You Shi Publishing, 1991).


    Digital image courtesy of You Shi Publishing (all rights reserved).

  • Guida a la storia dell’arte
    DOI

    Figure 90.


    Chinese Translation of Giulio Carlo Argan and Maurizio Fagiolo, Guida a la storia dell’arte, (Firenze: Sansoni Università, 1974), translated with a foreword by Tseng Yu and Tien-Tseng Yeh Liu, Yi Shu Shi Xue De Ji Chu [Guide to Art History] (Taipei: Dong Tai Tu Shu Publishing, 1992).


    Digital image courtesy of Dong Tai Tu Shu Publishing (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 86

The Chinese University of Hong Kong Bulletin, 8, no. 5 (December 1971), 4. Collection of The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Digital image courtesy of The Chinese University of Hong Kong (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 87

The Chinese University of Hong Kong Bulletin, 8, no. 5 (December 1971), 5. Collection of The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Digital image courtesy of The Chinese University of Hong Kong (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 88

Cover of the Chinese translation of Michael Sullivan, The Arts of China, (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1977), translated by Tseng Yu and Wang Bo Lian, Zhong Guo Yi Shu Shi [History of Chinese Art] (Taipei: Nan Tian Publishing, 1985).
Digital image courtesy of Nan Tian Publishing (all rights reserved)

DOI Figure 89

Chinese Translation of H.W. Janson, History of Art, (London: Thames and Hudson, 1977), translated by Tseng Yu and Wang Bo Lian, Xi Yang Yi Shu Shi [History of Art] (Taipei: You Shi Publishing, 1991).
Digital image courtesy of You Shi Publishing (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 90

Chinese Translation of Giulio Carlo Argan and Maurizio Fagiolo, Guida a la storia dell’arte, (Firenze: Sansoni Università, 1974), translated with a foreword by Tseng Yu and Tien-Tseng Yeh Liu, Yi Shu Shi Xue De Ji Chu [Guide to Art History] (Taipei: Dong Tai Tu Shu Publishing, 1992).
Digital image courtesy of Dong Tai Tu Shu Publishing (all rights reserved).

DOI

V. Schema and Correction: Repositioning Art Histories

As the first art school situated within a university in Britain, the Slade was established with a mandate to provide fine arts training in the context of a liberal arts education, which distinguished it from other art schools until the more academic Diploma in Art and Design (DipAD) was introduced to studio courses nationwide in 1960. In this section, we juxtapose archival records with artists’ accounts of art history at the Slade and its situation within the broader intellectual ecosystem of the University of London. This distinguishes the provision of art history within the art school fostered as at once a fertile ground for cross-disciplinary artistic experimentation, and a context deeply rooted in Eurocentric and colonial epistemologies, inheritances, and positionings. For artists coming from the colonized or decolonizing worlds, this art-historical education, designed to enable contemporary artists to situate their work within the arc of history, made evident the Eurocentrism of the art world and catalysed a variety of critical responses.

The interventions made by artists such as Ben Enwonwu, Anwar Jalal Shemza, K.G. Subramanyan, and Tseng Yu as well as by art historian Partha Mitter can also be understood in dialogue with those scholars of art history who taught at the Slade in the 1950s, namely, Rudolph Wittkower (1949–1956) and Ernst Gombrich (1956–1961). These “corrections” to the “schema”, to use Gombrich’s formulation, point to a mutually informing, albeit at times fraught, terrain of contact between art historians and artists that continues to have resonances in our understanding of global art histories.6

DOI Figure 91

Rudolf Wittkower, “The Artist and the Liberal Arts”, an inaugural lecture delivered at University College London, 1950. Collection of UCL Special Collections.
Digital facsimile courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 92

Slade Committee Meeting Minutes and Report, 4 March 1954. Collection of UCL Special Collections.
Digital facsimile courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 93

Sam Carter, Perspective Notes, 1957. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL Archives.
Digital facsimile courtesy of Slade School of Fine Art, UCL (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 94

Ernst Gombrich, Handouts for students attending the Slade course on ancient art, autumn 1956. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL Archives.
Digital facsimile courtesy of Slade School of Fine Art, UCL / the estate of Ernst Gombrich (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 95

Ernst Gombrich, Handouts for students attending the Slade’s spring term History of Art lectures, March 1957. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL Archives.
Digital facsimile courtesy of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL / the estate of Ernst Gombrich (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 96

Ernst Gombrich,, Gombrich’s personal notes for a lecture given at the Slade, 1956. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL Archives.
Digital facsimile courtesy of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL / the estate of Ernst Gombrich (all rights reserved).

  • DOI

    Figure 97.


    Letter from Tseng Yu to William Coldstream, 20 January 1955. Tseng Yu’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

  • DOI

    Figure 98.


    Leaflet accompanying letter from Tseng Yu to Professor William Coldstream, 20 January 1955, Exhibition of Paintings by Ch’i Pai-Shih (Qi Baishi) and Hsü Pei Hung (Xu Beihong), Foyles Art Gallery, 20 January–12 February 1955, leaflet cover. Tseng Yu’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.


    Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 97

Letter from Tseng Yu to William Coldstream, 20 January 1955. Tseng Yu’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 98

Leaflet accompanying letter from Tseng Yu to Professor William Coldstream, 20 January 1955, Exhibition of Paintings by Ch’i Pai-Shih (Qi Baishi) and Hsü Pei Hung (Xu Beihong), Foyles Art Gallery, 20 January–12 February 1955, leaflet cover. Tseng Yu’s Slade student file. UCL Special Collections.
Digital image courtesy of UCL Special Collections (all rights reserved).

 

DOI Figure 99

Tseng Yu, Lecture on Chinese painting given at the Slade, 1975, audio file, 1:29:03. Collection of the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL Archives. Cover image: Tseng Yu, Self-Portrait, 1955, ink on paper, 35.8 x 24.8 cm. Tate Archive (TGA 8214/108). Digital image courtesy of Estate of Richard Gainsborough / artist / artist’s estate (All rights reserved)

DOI Figure 100

Extract from Siva Kumar Raman, K.G. Subramanyan: A Retrospective, National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi, January 2003 (New Delhi: National Gallery of Modern Art, 2003).
Digital facsimile courtesy of National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi.

DOI Figure 101

Partha Mitter, “The Paradox of Ernst Gombrich”, Art and the Mind: Ernst H. Gombrich, ed. Sybille Moser-Ernst (Göttingen: V&R Unipress, 2018).
Digital facsimile courtesy of Partha Mitter / V&R Unipress.

DOI Figure 102

Excerpts from an oral history interview with Partha Mitter, conducted by Ming Tiampo on 3 February 2021film, 18 minutes, 6 seconds. Film editing by Edward Spreull. Digital files courtesy of Partha Mitter (all rights reserved).

DOI Figure 103

Partha Mitter, Much Maligned Monsters: A History of European Reactions to Indian Art, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977), cover design.